Technological innovation has made it easier for capital and those that need it to go where the best deals are available. As Messrs Bloomberg and Schumer see it, this has upset the “almost exquisite balance between regulation and entrepreneurial vigour” that helped America thrive in the last quarter of the 20th century. But Wall Street’s moneymen must take some of the blame: they were slower to embrace electronic trading than those in London.
Problems were compounded with tougher immigration controls after the 2001 terrorist attacks. With work visas harder to obtain, it can be extremely difficult for the managers of a global firm to gather in New York or Chicago at short notice. Meeting in London is much easier.
Aside from the visa question, which is hard to sort because it bumps up against security issues, there are four fundamental problems underlying America’s declining competitiveness:
• Section 404. This is the most contentious part of Sarbanes-Oxley. It requires an annual “internal control report”, which must be certified by auditors and personally signed off by two executives. It has concentrated minds, but raised costs considerably. Some say this is because it is being implemented too zealously.
Auditing expenses ballooned soon after the law was introduced. These have since fallen, but can still top several million dollars a year for a firm with a market capitalisation of $1 billion.
Because many of the costs of compliance are fixed, big companies find them easier to swallow. Some small firms cite this as a reason for listing on London’s AIM market for young stocks; 50 American firms have done so, most of them since 2004. Hundreds of others are said to be considering it. Another spur has been the decline in coverage of smaller stocks since banks were forced by Mr Spitzer to tighten up their research procedures.
But Sarbanes-Oxley is not just about costs. In theory, a higher standard of corporate-governance should result in a higher valuation, since listing in a well-regulated market shows a commitment from a company that it will not abuse investors. If this premium is high enough, it will offset the costs of compliance. One study, conducted post-Sarbanes-Oxley, found that the premium placed on the value of an emerging-market firm listing in New York can reach 37%; preliminary research suggests the value of a London listing is not as high. Mr Zingales’s calculations suggest that the New York premium outweighs costs for companies with a market value of more than $230m.
For the most part, reformers insist they are not out to gut Sarbanes-Oxley, but to make it more “risk-based”. This means keeping the goals largely the same but giving firms and their auditors more leeway in achieving them. That battle may already be won: the Securities and Exchange Commission, America’s chief market-regulator, and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, which was created by Sarbanes-Oxley, have both announced reviews of Section 404, hinting strongly that the burden will be eased, especially for smaller firms. On November 16th Christopher Cox, the SEC’s chairman, promised “significant changes” in coming weeks.