The program was launched after the image of money funds as glorified savings accounts was shattered last September, when the $65 billion Primary Fund, part of the Reserve Fund, announced that the value of its assets had dropped far enough that customers would lose money. The fund broke the buck after writing off its nearly $800 million investment in debt issued by Lehman. Institutional investors rushed to pull their money out, driving the fund into liquidation. That week, investors pulled more than $300 billion out of the funds. The guarantee was intended to calm redemption-seekers and temper the outflow of funds.
Glenzer says the guarantee may be artificially inflating investments in money-market funds. According to the AFP’s 2009 Liquidity Survey, which came out last week, AFP members are allocating 32% of their cash balances to money-market funds — the highest percentage in the four years the organization has been collecting the data. Those investments are almost evenly split between pure Treasury funds (16.1%) and diversified funds (15.7%).
“There’s been a dramatic shift from emphasis on yield in short-term investment portfolios to the primary objective of preserving the safety of principle and retaining liquidity,” says Glenzer.
Meanwhile, though the proposed rule changes could hamper investment in commercial paper, they could make money funds attractive to companies that have been hoarding cash to make their balance sheets more investor-friendly.
Earlier this year, Goldman Sachs calculated that the nonfinancial firms in the S&P 500 were carrying a near-record $811 billion in cash and marketable securities on their books. The AFP survey found that almost 75% had either increased or left unchanged their U.S. cash balances in the six months leading up to May 2009. Similarly, the CFO Midcap 1500 companies have strengthened their balance sheets by boosting cash holdings from just under $100 billion in 2006 to about $125 billion last year (see the chart at the end of this article).
“Obviously, the government is trying to instill confidence in investors,” says Bradley Fox, vice president and treasurer at Safeway, the supermarket chain. “They want to see that the short-term market for borrowing and investing is functioning normally.”
But the government’s move toward increasing regulation, some argue, is an overreaction. “Money-market funds tend to be managed in the most conservative manner available,” says Ron Geffner, a partner at Sadis & Goldberg, where he oversees the financial services group. “Some people think money-market funds are broken, but I don’t think any additional regulation is required.”
Specifically, the proposed rules would require institutional money-market funds — whose investors are primarily companies and public pension funds — to keep at least 10% of their assets in cash, Treasuries, or investments convertible to cash within one day. At least 30% must be liquid within a week. (For retail funds, which have been less vulnerable to liquidity problems, the corresponding figures are 5% and 15%.)
The maximum weighted average maturity of a fund’s portfolio would be reduced from 90 days to 60 days, lessening investors’ exposure to interest-rate risks. Under another proposal, funds would be authorized to bar investors from selling their shares should their net asset value fall below $1.