Excessive financial jargon in documents filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission often clouds intended messages, said speakers at an American Institute of Certified Public Accountants conference this week.
The sentiment particularly applies to the Management’s Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) section of quarterly and annual reports and other registration statements, where companies generally discuss their business, uncertainties, and market trends.
“Everyone likes to prove they’re the smartest person in the room because they understand the jargon,” said Brian Lane, partner in the Washington, D.C., office of Gibson Dunn & Crutcher and former SEC director of the division of corporate finance. “Plain English works.”
The best MD&As have “more tables and less jargon,” Lane opined. Tables, he noted, are easier to understand than mounds of text. In the text, companies often include too many comparisons going back several years, which is often unnecessary and even confusing, he said. It’s better to show simple comparisons between this year and last year in both the text and tables, and include information on other years just in tables.
Making sure MD&As are as readable and informative as possible may ward off or lessen the impact of SEC inquiries, Lane added. One key to doing that: in all areas of focus within the section, answer the question “why?” he said.
Actually, having more tables in financial reports is a widening theme. The Financial Accounting Standards Board made a push in that direction this past summer, requesting comments on a proposal calling for nonfinancial companies to disclose expected cash-flow obligations in a table segregated by time of expected maturity.
For one, Katherine Gill-Charest, controller and chief accounting officer at Viacom, should be prepared if the proposal is approved. She already is including more than the usual amount of detailed information in the company’s MD&A statements. To facilitate that, she holds “working meetings” with members of Viacom’s disclosure committee a couple of times a year, instead of having just one formal meeting at reporting time to head off any questions that might arise from the SEC. She also meets with the CFOs of Viacom’s divisions to be aware of pertinent issues in preparing MD&As.
For example, the SEC repeatedly has asked for information on how Viacom plans to fund its $10 billion share-repurchase program. Other questions come when an SEC official hears of a trend during an earnings call that is not included in the MD&A.
Lane supported that use of a firm’s disclosure committee. A good item to discuss with that committee, for example, is “cash runway,” a measure of how long a company’s cash on hand will last, he said. A hoard of $300 million in cash is not actually that much if the company is burning through it at $90 million a quarter.
Knowing what questions the SEC may have raised with competitors is important, too. “If I know a peer of mine has gotten reviewed, we will always take a look at the SEC’s comments,” said Gill-Charest, noting that she treats any correspondence between a competitor and the SEC as if it were her own document.
That made sense to Lane: “You do need to see what competitors and peers are disclosing, because the SEC is going to look at you in that same lens,” he said.
One area where some companies could ease up is their heavy use of forward-looking disclosure statements. “Projections are not required in [the] MD&A,” said Lane. “You [just] have to talk about known uncertainties and how they could impact the future.”