While some people might need additional training to learn, say, how to install solar panels, “a lot of these jobs are the same kinds of things people are already doing,” notes Pollin. To meet increased demand for wind power, for example, he envisions more jobs for steelworkers, who would be needed to build the parts of a wind turbine. “Manufacturing steel to meet certain specifications — this is a skill people already have,” he says.
With 800,000 U.S. construction jobs lost between July 2006 and July 2008, there are a lot of people available to do the work. Eileen Kamerick, CFO at Tecta America, a roofing contractor that installs both traditional commercial roofs and green roofs, agrees that while there may be some training needs, many skills would transfer. “This is a better proposal than having to retool people entirely,” she says. “Taking someone who’s been a line worker at GM and trying to turn them into an IT worker has always been a bit of a wobbly proposition. This is taking someone who’s in construction and teaching them how to do something slightly different in their field.” At Tecta America, for example, Kamerick says the same work crew can install a green roof or a regular roof. “You’re still working on a roof.”
The quality of jobs created is a distinction of the plan, observes Thomas Kochan, co-director of the Institute for Work and Employment at MIT’s Sloan School of Management. “This is a very creative way of addressing a very big social need and a very big economic need, and building sustainable jobs that can’t be outsourced, because infrastructure is obviously local,” says Kochan, who is not associated with the PERI study. “In the past we have had programs where the states have spent monies on various kinds of public needs, but those have typically resulted in very low-wage jobs.” In contrast, skilled construction and manufacturing jobs usually command higher pay than many service-sector jobs.
Of course, obstacles to implementation abound. The government’s purse strings are being tugged on rather hard at the moment. And while Kochan calls the plan “entirely doable,” he notes that new green infrastructure projects could quickly get bogged down in disputes about wages and the question of whether projects receiving federal dollars must use union labor. Pollin himself admits that the plan, while providing a notable employment boost for as long as 30 years as infrastructure projects are under way, does not answer longer-term questions about the U.S. workforce and its qualifications. Indeed, “once the new infrastructure is built, there is no more net job growth from this program,” he says. “We’re going to have to solve our employment problems in other ways.”
But 30 years from now, whole new industries may exist thanks to the continued development of technology and the push to identify alternative sources of energy. For now, an initiative that produces 2 million new jobs while moving the United States to a higher environmental standard and away from its dependence on oil looks like a good place to start.
Kate O’Sullivan is a senior writer at CFO.
Where the Green Jobs Are
Green jobs are not just for workers with advanced degrees. They also include a range of old-economy roles.
BUILDING RETROFITTING: Electricians, heating/air-conditioning installers, carpenters, roofers
MASS TRANSIT/FREIGHT RAIL: Civil engineers, rail-track layers, welders, bus drivers
SMART GRID: Computer software engineers, electrical engineers, power-line repairers
WIND POWER: Environmental engineers, iron and steel workers, truck drivers
SOLAR POWER: Electrical engineers, electricians, metal fabricators
ADVANCED BIOFUELS: Chemical engineers, chemical technicians, agricultural workers
Source: “Green Recovery,” by Robert Pollin, Heidi Garrett-Peltier, James Heintz, and Helen Scharber, Department of Economics and Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts–Amherst, September 2008