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What’s a Reputation Worth?

In the wake of the Toyota recall, more companies grapple with how to manage something they can't measure.

Did investors smell a crisis brewing? “There was some segment of the population that knew something, because we measure people’s behaviors,” contends Kossovsky, “and there was [investor] behavior that indicated that there were some people that bet against the current status of Toyota.”

Darden Restaurants also believes in gauging public attitudes — in this case, the opinions of its customers, says CFO Brad Richmond. Earlier this year, when a survey aimed at the “financial mind-set” of consumers found that they believed that its Red Lobster chain had raised prices (it hadn’t) the company launched a discounted dinner-for-two promotion designed not to increase business per se but to reverse that misperception.

A more serious reputational risk for restaurants than erroneous beliefs about price, however, is food contamination. Darden not only conducts rigorous inspections of many foods at their source of production, it is even willing to let perception trump reality. Two years ago, for example, when a salmonella outbreak was inaccurately attributed to tomatoes, Olive Garden stopped serving them — even though it knew through its own inspections that they were not the cause.

Blame It on ERM?

One reason that companies may be particularly vulnerable to reputational risk is that it is not adequately addressed by enterprise risk management, the discipline that many corporations use to prioritize perils. That is largely because quantifying reputational risk separately from other forms of corporate uncertainty violates the spirit of ERM, which stresses that all corporate exposures be analyzed and managed as a whole.

Some CFOs embrace the holistic approach so enthusiastically that they don’t even believe in appointing a chief risk officer or similar senior executive responsible for managing risk. “Acting like risk is somebody else’s responsibility is counterproductive, because it’s incumbent upon each of the senior managers to be a risk manager,” says Eaton Corp. CFO Richard Fearon. He recently criticized a proposal by Sen. Charles Schumer (D–N.Y.) that would require public-company boards to form a special risk committee, saying that “everything we do is about managing risk,” and therefore shouldn’t be assessed in a piecemeal way.

If ERM fails to address reputational risk, insurance may offer a backstop. Companies have long been able to buy coverage for specific reputation-damaging events such as product recalls, directors’ and officers’ liability, or what is known as “three-d” insurance, that is, the death, disgrace, or disability of a corporate spokesperson.

But interest in insurance that covers a corporation’s good name against a broader array of threats is on the rise. One broker, DeWitt Stern, has begun marketing a policy that would cover U.S. companies for up to $50 million in public-relations and media costs stemming from an event “that does damage to your brand and interrupts your normal business cycle,” says LeConte Moore, a managing director at the firm.

Insured or not, a company that suffers a reputational hit can mitigate the damage by taking prompt action. Toyota has been battered in the press as much, and possibly more, for the apparent tardiness and ineffectiveness of its response as for the actual mechanical problem(s).

“That’s where so many companies fall down,” Fearon says. “They won’t admit to the mistake in the first place. And by the time they do, there’s been huge damage to their reputations.”

But reputations aren’t necessarily fragile. Toyota posted a large sales gain in March (admittedly helped by incentives) even as the investigations that may further sully its image continued.

David M. Katz is New York bureau chief at CFO.

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